Simplified laboratory testing procedures as fatigue testing don’t show the actual load conditions and structural properties of newly developed wheels; biaxial wheel tests have virtually transferred the test track into the laboratory in order to develop and test wheels that are weight- and cost-optimized as well as structural durable.

Considering the existing vehicles you get a wide range of different wheel constructions in all kinds of uses. The wheel design is an essential distinguishing feature for the design of a vehicle and often not necessarily based on structural durability or weight optimization.